10 copper artifacts that scientists discovered the secrets of the ancients

10 copper artifacts that scientists discovered the secrets of drewnianej one of the first metals, which began to work about 5000 BC, during the so-called era of copper (Chalcolithic period), when there was a radical transition from primitive stone technology of the Neolithic to the bronze. For millennia, copper was the main engine of the global economy. The most common prehistoric metal artefacts of copper alloy and are still surprised archaeologists.

1. The lost treasure of the copper scroll

The lost treasure of the copper свитка14 March 1952 archaeologist discovered a mysterious copper scroll, which was in sharp contrast with all other previously found in the Qumran caves, the Dead sea scrolls. The material of the scroll, its author, script, language and style suggests that he was in cave No. 3 at a different time than the 14 other scrolls, made of parchment and papyrus. According to Professor Richard Freund, «the copper scroll is probably the most unique, most important and least understood among the Dead sea scrolls». In 1955, unable to deploy rusted scroll, the researchers had to break a priceless artifact in order to access its contents. The language in this scroll very little resemblance to the one that says other Dead sea scrolls. The copper scroll, Dating from 25 — 100 ad, contains a list of the 64 places where you can find fabulous treasures. It mentions the huge caches of gold, silver, and priestly garments, etc. cost more than a billion dollars at today’s prices.

2. Andean mask

Andean mask.In 2005, the residents of La-Quebrada in the Argentine Andes have discovered an ancient copper mask, which essentially has forced to reconsider the history of metallurgy in pre-Columbian South America. Found in a mass grave copper mask Dating from about 1414 — 1087 years before our era. In the mask, height 18 cm, width 15 cm and thickness 1 mm made openings for mouth, nose and eyes. She was attached to the face by means of additional holes along the edge of the mask. Archaeologists believe that the ore for this 3,000-year-old death mask was produced in the valley Galfina, which is located 69 km from the place of occurrence. Now in this valley in the province of Chaco is a large copper mine.

3. Copper Atlantean

Copper Atlantov March 2015, marine archaeologists announced the discovery of 39 bars «Atlantic» copper in the wreckage of a shipwreck near Sicily. According to Plato, metal «orichalcum» was kind of a reddish copper, and was considered not less valuable than gold. Atlanteans supposedly used it to give the temple of Poseidon its otherworldly glow. People have long discussed the possible composition of this alloy. Most modern scholars believe that it was a bronze alloy with zinc, charcoal and copper. Others believe that orichalcum was made on the basis of amber. Unfortunately, in metal, discovered in 2600-year-old Greek ship, there was nothing mythical. Probably copper was exported from Cyprus. From the fourth Millennium BC Cypriot metallurgists have produced several variants of copper, including its alloy with zinc, and trace amounts of iron and Nickel. Given the longevity and resistance to tarnishing of the alloy, it is highly valued in the creation of jewelry. To this day, Cypriots speak a Greek language, still belong to the copper to the lefthanded.

4. Trade of blades

Trade of blades.In 2016, the archaeologists announced that the composition of the ancient bronze tools in Sweden contains Mediterranean copper. These tools are age-3600 years are evidence of the trade away in the bronze age. Probably, the Scandinavians traded their precious amber, which was prized at gold level, changing it to copper. The isotopic analysis showed that the metal came from Cyprus, Sicily, Sardinia and the Iberian Peninsula. Researchers believe that these southern sources of metals were the basis of Scandinavian metallurgy, but rather was a «Supplement» to local sources. Archaeologists now believe that they found the image of Mediterranean ships in the Swedish rock art from the bronze age. Interestingly, ships are almost always accompanied by images of large bulls, which was also characteristic of ancient painting of the Hittites and the Minoans. Similar images are also found in present-day southern Turkey.

5. A brass plate from the lagoon

A brass plate from lagonav 1989, the man who scooped the sand from the river bottom, the PT, has discovered the oldest known written document in the Philippines. Dating back to 900 ad copper plate measuring 20 by 30 centimeters was completely riddled with text in an unknown language. The person who found it, sold a copper plate dealer in Antiques. Only then ancient document attracted the attention of researchers. In 1992, a Dutch anthropologist, Antoon Postma deciphered the inscription, which was made on a combination of the ancient language of kawi and the old Malay language, developed in Java. Scientists have long believed that the Philippines in the X century were culturally isolated from the rest of Asia. The inscription on a brass plate casts doubt on this notion, because it testifies to a foreign influence in the region.

6. Copper Chatal-Chuuka

Copper Catal-Kuukausiliite, people know much less about the origin of the melting point of copper than was thought initially. For decades, archaeologists believed that the 8500-year-old Turkish settlement of çatalhöyük, which was the most ancient place of production of copper in the world. For more than four decades the site had traces of slag, a byproduct of copper smelting. However, it appears that copper Chatal-Chuuka could be created by accident. According to scientists at the University of Cambridge, this means that copper firing occurred unintentionally and accidentally. Moreover, the researchers found that part of what was initially considered a slag, was actually burned by the dye. Researchers now believe that copper was invented independently in different parts of the globe.

7. Axe Ötzi

Axe Ativ 1991, tourists have discovered ice mummy ötzi the glacier in the Ötztal Alps on the Italian-Austrian border. 5300 years ago in the era of copper, ötzi was killed by an arrow in the back. In July 2017 the researchers made a surprising discovery. Copper axe ötzi was imported from another location. Isotopic analysis of the blade showed that the copper used in the oldest preserved Neolithic axe in the world, was produced in southern Tuscany that hints at a vast network of prehistoric trade. It is uncertain, whether imported from the South, ready the blade or brought copper ore from which forged the axe. Interestingly, in that period, copper was mined in the Alps. Why ETSI chose the Tuscan copper local remains a mystery.

8. Ancient Egyptian ink

Ancient Egyptian cernilov November 2017 the researchers published in the journal Nature article, revealing the secret ingredient of ancient Egyptian ink: copper. The team from the University of Copenhagen analyzed the papyri of the II century BC — III century ad, All the inks of these samples contained copper. This is the first time the ink based on copper has been found in ancient Egypt. The samples do not show significant differences, regardless of where and when was papyrus. This implies that the technology of ink has been unchanged for at least 300 years. Probably the source material was a byproduct of metallurgy. Egyptian blue is a legendary pigment, created using the by-products of copper metallurgy. Also known as silicate of copper and calcium, it is the oldest known artificial pigment. When and where the copper ink was originally started in Egypt, remains a mystery.

9. Copper cocoons

Copper coconis 1997 in Siberia, archaeologists have found a necropolis of the XIII century, containing mummies, from head to toe wrapped in cocoons made of copper. 34 graves Green Yar were found more than a dozen of naturally preserved mummies. Recently, in 2015, the researchers found the remains of the first known women in this necropolis and the baby. Both were buried in the burial cocoons made of birch bark and fur. The child was covered with the remains of broken copper pot, and the adult female was enclosed in a copper plate. Today about the mysterious culture that built the Green Yar, almost nothing is known. The feet of all the mummies in the necropolis point to the nearby Mountain river Poluy. Skull many men were defeated, what he says about the ritual significance of the burial. Copper pots, Dating from the tenth and eleventh centuries, which were found in the Green Yar, may have been produced in Persia. The finding suggests that it would seem extremely isolated settlement was in fact a crossroad of cultures.

10. Ancient jewellery

Ancient decorations December 2017, a team of researchers from the UK and Serbia announced that aesthetics played a key role in the development of copper alloys. The group developed a color chart for the alloys consisting of copper, tin and arsenic, to identify the initial composition of these ancient copper alloys (today components used in the prehistoric copper alloys, largely unknown). Copper has lost its visual appeal after so many years underground. The researchers were surprised to find that it was like modern jewelry technologies that use similar color schemes for alloys of gold, copper and silver. Researchers believe that the Golden hue of the ancient Balkan bronze appeared due to the high demand for gold in the region.

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