Labial Tselovalnik, ofen, saddler and other popular in Russia, the jobs are gone

The chimney sweep. Artist: Firs Zhuravlev./ Cabs of old Moscow.(1800) Artist: Fedor Alekseev.In the history of Russia there were many professions, most of which can hardly be envied. But over time took away the outmoded profession of life of modern people and only in the paintings of artists-classics Yes in historical Chronicles, there were mentions of many of them.

The water-carrier and the goldsmith

Water. The artist V. G. Perov Modern citizen is difficult to imagine life without running water and sanitation, but less than a century ago, even in capitals such facilities are not existed in mass use. And people had, in any weather, to fetch the water with buckets over long distances. And many who were richer, bought water from water carriers, paying good money for it. Vodovoz. (1873). Author: Sergei Gribkov.The carrier could steel anyone who had a special large containers, such as barrels and the cart with the horse. The jars also had a cart or sled to haul by hand. Drinking water drawn from special wells, pools and fountains. While the color, which was painted barrel talked about the quality of the water from the channels carrying water into green barrels and drinking — in white. Often the water truck went accompanied running beside the wagon of a dog that his barking alerts the townspeople of the arrival of the barrels of water. Water trucks, often using the fact that a particular choice among residents was not, for the water was taken at an exorbitant price.According to statistics a century ago water carried and transported about seven thousand horse-drawn water carriers and about three thousand of water. Their number gradually decreased until the city fully transitioned to a centralized water and sewer.Vodovoz.Remarkably, in the old days were widely sought after and the goldsmiths, whose occupation in the modern sense is equivalent to the profession of a plumber. And if the water carrier was revered, prestigious and profitable work of the goldsmith was not very pleasant because the bad smell. Goldsmith had to take out the sewage mass in the barrels and cleaned latrines to maintain sanitary cleanliness in the city. The name of this profession was due to the fact that the sewage flowing in the streets, joke of the night was called «gold». And lasted Zolotarev in Russia until the late nineteenth century.

The publican is one of the most ancient and mysterious of professions in Russia.

The publican in Russia.The barmen were civil servants, responsible for the collection of taxes and enforcement. This post was chosen the «whole world» the most worthy. While taking the oath, they kissed the cross and swore «to serve faithfully and honestly», hence the name «the publican».First mention of the barmen in Russia emerged in the 15th century and so called them until the beginning of the 19th century. Then this position and transformed into the office of a bailiff. In the middle of the 17th century the position has ceased to be already very popular since the reign of Ivan the terrible was put forward certain requirements to the service. They were required to collect a tax, taxes, arrears and customs duty of a certain size, and if the fee was less, the arrears fell on the publican as his personal debt.The capture of the thieves.There was also the position of the labial Tselovalnik, obliged to help hubname warden to catch thieves and robbers, who were then executed or sent to hard labor. In this case, the «lipstick» comes from the word «destroy».Subsequently, since the 19th century, barmen became known as merchants of wine shops, which on the cross vowed not to dilute the vodka and the confirmation of an oath kissed him.


Three frisky.This profession was very popular until the early 20th century, also it transformed over time. Translated with a modern twist: the drivers – it’s kind of the drivers of long-distance routes, which are also engaged in postal and goods transport. The coachman of old Moscow.(1800) Artist: Fedor Alekseev.But the cabs – the drivers of urban taxis. They are also classified. For example, «Vanka,» provide services «Economy class» were from the villages, hiring horses and carriages. They took for the trip from 30 to 70 cents. «Work-horses», carrying goods on horses-heavy horses were the type of cargo taxi. The rich took his «reckless», which had beautiful horses and comfortable carriages, and the clients they brought to the place for three rubles. City cab driver.However, it was still among urban taxi drivers, dressed in branded clothing — «duckies» and «frisky». They had the license plate and they could be ordered through a special exchange, and the trip cost in the range of the ruble.


Cooper. Author: S. Skachkov.In ancient times, was a widely spread profession of the Cooper, which almost disappeared in the 20th century, and today they are almost gone. However, the number of Coopers reached 1,000 people in each province. To put together the barrels is quite laborious and complicated matter: the boards should fit so tightly to each other, so they do not leak. Therefore, professional Coopers in the old days was valued very highly.Workshop. Bondari. Author: Ignatius Sekowski.

Jhon or Catala.

Katale. Author: Yuri P. Kugach Good masters of felting quality of boots always in Russia was respected. Their work paid decent money. The farm Eganov-katala went from village to village and played boots from local raw materials. To have survived and iganski dictionary, as communicated on his own, understandable only to them language, thereby protecting from prying trade secrets.


A saddler. Author: Mikhail Klodt.The Blinker is a Blinker cover and a lateral view of the eye of the horse. A saddler made not only the shore but all horse equipment: saddles, bridles, stirrups that were unique. The first saddlers appeared since ancient times, but nowadays only few artists made ammunition for thoroughbred horses for racing.This craft was painstaking and time-consuming and demanded high skill from the saddler, who worked manually with the most simple tools.


«Ofen-peddler». Author: Nikolai Koshelev.In Russia since the end of the 17th century there was a great many wandering merchants who sold in the villages of small goods, books, popular print products, paper, cloth. They mostly came from the peasants and, in some provinces they were called ofen, and in the other — peddler. The main feature of these traders was the sonorous voice to entice buyers and the ability to «face» to show the goods.


Burlaka. Author: V. V. Vereshchagin.Haulers — seasonal salaried workers, United in cooperatives, pull the vessel against the current, literally on their shoulders. Heavy hard labor in Russia was abolished in 1929. However, in some countries it is sought after today.

The lamplighter

«Morning at the tavern.» Author: Leonid Solomatkin. In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, the streets were lit by torches, lamps, oil wicks, and, accordingly, were the people who followed it. In Russia the profession of the lamplighter came much later. So,in the XIX century retired military followed the light of the night streets. Every lamplighter in the service was up to 50 lights, which you had time to fill and the oil and fix the wick. With the advent of the first electric light bulbs lamplighters still on and off the lights manually. And only in the thirties of the last century with the introduction of automatic inclusion of lights, this profession disappeared.

Chimney sweep

The chimney sweep. Author: Firs Zhuravlev.In Russia, the profession of chimney sweep became popular from 1720, when the first stoves and fireplaces with chimneys, a trend that has spread from Denmark. By the way, in some Northern European countries and now there are representatives of this profession.The chimney sweep. (1880). Author: Frans Wilhelm Odelmark.But the history of drinking in Russia and the prohibition of Nicholas II can be read here null

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