What I wrote in Russia when the usual pens and notebooks was not in sight

What I wrote in Russia when the usual pens and notebooks was not in sight.Ancient man and the modern, occasionally experienced the desire to commit their emotions or thoughts. Today it’s simple — we’ll take a notebook and pen or open the computer and write your text. And many centuries ago our ancestors used a sharp rock to knock them on the cave wall picture or icon. And what you wrote in the old days in Russia?

Tablets and wrote — what is it?

Instead of paper in Ancient Russia used the tablets, which was a wooden plaque in the form of a small tray filled with wax. It was a reusable device: the wax they scratched letters, if necessary, they are erased, and the tablets were again ready to eat.Tablets – wooden tablets with wax for the application of the text./Photo: ruvera.have geesala that worked with wax, made from bone, wood or metal. These ancestors of modern pencils looked like sticks with a length of up to twenty centimeters, with a pointed end. Wrote was decorated with carvings or ornament.

Birch bark and parchment as a replacement for paper

Tablets were, so to speak, a stationary device for writing. To take them with you or to use as postage was uncomfortable. For these purposes served the birch bark or birch bark. On it, our ancestors scratched out the texts using the same wrote. Made of birch bark and books. Originally selected pieces of bark of the desired size, same cut, and they applied the text. Then made a cover, also made of birch bark. When all was ready, the page from one side fought with the help of sewing, the hole was poteryalsya lace from the skin, which an ancient book was fixed.Birch-bark, devoted to matchmaking./Photo: cont.wsДля serious literary works, Chronicles, official letters, laws used a more expensive material than bark — parchment. He came from Asia, where it was supposedly invented in the second century BC. He was made of calfskin, which was held on a special dressing. So the old books were very expensive — too valuable was raw material. For example, to produce sheets for the Bible in the modern A4, it was necessary to use at least 150 calf skins.The process of making parchment was very difficult. The skins are washed, cleaned of lint, soaked in lime solution. Then wet raw material is stretched on a wooden frame, stretched, dried. With the help of special blades, the inner side should be cleaned of all particles. After these manipulations, the skin is rubbed with chalk and vypaivali. The final stage of bleaching, it was used for flour and milk. Parchment was an excellent writing material, light and durable, double-sided, and also reusable — if necessary, the top layer can be easily scraped off. Wrote on it with ink.

Do not eat berry, best ink do

For manufacture ink used in Russia resin cherry or acacia, is the gum. It was further added substance to give a liquid of a certain color. To make the black ink used so-called soot or ink nuts (special growths on oak leaves). The brown color appeared after adding rust or brown iron. Sky blue gave copper sulphate, blood-red cinnabar. It was possible to do easier, that is, just to use natural materials. For example, the blueberry juice and it’s done a beautiful violet ink, elderberry and the root knotweed — here’s a ink blue colour. Buckthorn was given the opportunity to make a bright Magenta ink, and the leaves of many plants green. For writing on wax was applied wrote of wood, stone or bone./Photo: budzma.byПриготовление ink can not be called easy, so they are prepared immediately before use and in very small quantities. If the liquid remained unused, it was kept in tightly closed vessels made of ceramics or wood. Usually ink tried delate fairly concentrated, because in the letter they added water. So there was ink, that is a small sustainable capacity convenient form for dilution of ink and dipping pens.

A feather quill, or why a pocket knife is so called

When there is ink, there is a need for a new writing tool, so as the sticks did not fit. For this purpose well suited the bird’s feathers, most often it was an ordinary goose, durable and comfortable enough. I wonder what they took from the left wing of the bird, as the feather was easier to hold it in his right hand. Lefty did for myself writing tool of the right wing. During the centuries of the writing ink used goose feathers./Photo: shkolazhizni.hypero needed how to prepare: it was degreased, vivarium alkali, quenched in hot sand, and only then sharpen or «repaired» with the help of knife. Penknife – the name comes from there. Writing with a pen was hard, it required a special skill. Careless use of parchment flew fine spray, when excessive pressing feather was sprawled, creating blots. Because writing books has brought very special people: the scribes, which has a beautiful neat handwriting. They are artfully written in capital letters in red ink, made headlines script, graced the pages of a book with beautiful pictures, let the ornament at the edges.

The arrival of metal feathers on the bird’s change

Bird feathers have served humanity no less than of the Millennium. And only in 1820 came to light steel pen. It happened in Germany, and after a while the metal feathers came to Russia. Metal feathers eventually forced the bird./Photo: the First metal pens were very expensive, they are often made not just of steel, and precious metals, and the wand was adorned with rubies, diamonds and even diamonds. It is clear that such a luxurious thing were only available to very rich people. Despite the emergence of rivals metal, goose feathers continued honestly to squeak on the paper. And only at the end of the XIX century the manufacture of steel pens were put on stream, they appeared in almost every home, where writing.Metal feathers are used today, they are inserted into the piston pens, poster pens are artists, there is even a special musical feathers.

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