When the first cottages, and what country bans existed in Soviet times

At the tea table. Korovin.For Russians today it has become customary to live in the city, and the weekend and holidays to carry out in the country near the city. This tradition is rooted in the time of Peter, when the king gave a close of land near Petersburg to the summer went back to their distant estates and was always «at hand». The history of dachas in this review.

Where did the word giving, and what does Peter the great

First suburban homes for the summer holidays appeared in Russia in the XVIII century near St. Petersburg. Belonged to this innovation to Peter I. the Emperor granted to his subjects the earth to hold them in the summer and close to the town and not to disperse on distant estates and «abroad». Officials, received the Royal gift, was told not to tighten and within a few years to build on the home sites, suitable for living and carry out landscaping of the adjacent territories. Track wooden Palace of Peter I in Strelna./Photo: dpcity.gindele, donated by Peter, called the common in those days, the word «cottage» which meant a gift, a gift and led its origin from the ancient verb «dati», which today is pronounced as to give. Hence, there was the familiar to our ears the name of the country, which today is called the area outside of town.Aristocrats built houses along the road to Peterhof, the most beautiful places of the Northern capital. Peter EN route to your Chateau, I could on the way to inspect or to observe how to spend time with his subjects at their dachas.

Villas in Imperial Russia

In the early nineteenth century holiday cottage started to gain popularity. First the ground began to form around both capitals. Ostankino, Perovo, Kuntsevo, Russia — at Moscow, Novouralsk, Seversk, Krasnoye Selo, Dudergof — near St. Petersburg. At the cottage in the suburbs. The beginning of the XX century.Suburban neighborhood «filled» evenly, villas appeared in all the suburbs, but most of them occurred along the railway lines. The country of the late XIX — early XX centuries.Initially, cottages were built for the sole purpose pleasant stay, friendly meetings, conducting performances and concerts. As the farms they began to be considered much later. Many country ownership has become the most favorite places for walk, there are restaurants and shopping stalls. Country gatherings.For example, in the first third of the XIX century it was very fashionable to relax in Ostankino, whose owner, then, was count Sheremetyev. His yard, quickly realized the benefits began refitting their houses and began to lease them to city residents. Some were so successful in this business that have become very wealthy. Many country houses were so flimsy that when you check in they issued a statement in which it was stated that for the safety dance in the house. Museum — estate of count Sheremetyev.When the construction of Railways became more active, holiday villages started to appear in considerable remoteness from Moscow, Khimki, Khovrino, Tarasovka, Pushkino, Malakhovka, Tomilino.By the beginning of XX century the most fashionable places in the suburbs were considered towns Klyazma, where there were nearly 500 houses, and Malakhovka, which was built about 1,000 lodges. In the villages already had well-developed social infrastructure, even electricity, and ride on them could be on the tram.Near St. Petersburg the garden Palace was built in the suburbs, and in some of the villages. Gradually move to the Karelian isthmus, the construction began only in the early XX century. In 1892 even was published the guide «Where to go to the country?», in which special attention was paid to Gatchina. Abramtsevo — dacha outside Moscow artists and writers of the XIX weaponstay growth of rent in the early twentieth century led to the fact that many citizens could not live in the city centre. Began relocating to the suburbs. First, an increasing number of people remained to winter in the country, which led to the transformation of suburban places in towns, where year-round people lived. Citizens who remained in the cottages for the winter, was called zimogore. To shelter such people, there are places like Ligovo, Holguin, Housewarming, and other

Soviet dacha and their specificity

After the October revolution, if we ignore the former aristocratic estates, most of the cottages looked like light buildings erected without much effort. Handed them out, many farmers getting additional income.For many years the Soviet Union was a banned multi-storey country house.Most of the cottages were built so that you can at any time to take the train into the city. Electricity and water at most sites was absent. By 30-th years of the cottages began to turn into a kind of farmland. People came to care for a vegetable garden. In the Soviet period were in the construction of country houses for employees of different organizations, the only difference was that ordinary employees and workers were given plots with one-story buildings for several families at once, and high-level officials were building a huge house, and we paid for that state. Under Khrushchev, the notion of collective gardening. The value of a standard suburban area was 6 square meters – that was leased from the state. The Soviet elite could afford all the huge areas of high multi-storey house, living in enclosed settlements. Ordinary people peacefully working in their gardens on 6 acres and lived in their one-story houses with porches.For many Russians, the garden at the cottage was a way to feed the family./Photo: www.medved-centr.ru

21st century: the transformation of country houses in the palaces

In the eighties of the XX century the restrictions were lifted on the number of storeys and size of country houses. Began to emerge these palaces of white and red bricks, all different shapes and sizes — everything depended on imagination and financial possibilities of the owner.Today there are many villages, where the ancient cottages donated by the state elite society for some merit. They are usually located close to the city, in a nice, convenient place, different quality and beautiful appearance. Currently such buildings belong to the category of real estate, can buy them only by wealthy people. Many of them do not have any relationship to the first owner of the house.Today, many villas look like fairy houses./Photo: img.7dach.itendency use the garden as subsistence farming gradually fades. Increasingly city people just relaxing, making barbecue, skiing, fun, spend their free time.

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